• Knowledge Completion for Generics Using Guided Tensor Factorization
    Hanie Sedghi and Ashish Sabharwal TACL 2018
  • Visual Semantic Planning using Deep Successor Representations
    Yuke Zhu, Daniel Gordon, Eric Kolve, Dieter Fox, Li Fei-Fei, Abhinav Gupta, Roozbeh Mottaghi, Ali Farhadi ICCV 2017

    A crucial capability of real-world intelligent agents is their ability to plan a sequence of actions to achieve their goals in the visual world. In this work, we address the problem of visual semantic planning: the task of predicting a sequence of actions from visual observations that transform a dynamic environment from an initial state to a goal state. Doing so entails knowledge about objects and their affordances, as well as actions and their preconditions and effects. We propose learning these through interacting with a visual and dynamic environment. Our proposed solution involves bootstrapping reinforcement learning with imitation learning. To ensure cross task generalization, we develop a deep predictive model based on successor representations. Our experimental results show near optimal results across a wide range of tasks in the challenging THOR environment. Less

  • See the Glass Half Full: Reasoning about Liquid Containers, their Volume and Content
    Roozbeh Mottaghi, Connor Schenck, Dieter Fox, Ali Farhadi ICCV 2017

    Humans have rich understanding of liquid containers and their contents; for example, we can effortlessly pour water from a pitcher to a cup. Doing so requires estimating the volume of the cup, approximating the amount of water in the pitcher, and predicting the behavior of water when we tilt the pitcher. Very little attention in computer vision has been made to liquids and their containers. In this paper, we study liquid containers and their contents, and propose methods to estimate the volume of containers, approximate the amount of liquid in them, and perform comparative volume estimations all from a single RGB image. Furthermore, we show the results of the proposed model for predicting the behavior of liquids inside containers when one tilts the containers. We also introduce a new dataset of Containers Of liQuid contEnt (COQE) that contains more than 5,000 images of 10,000 liquid containers in context labelled with volume, amount of content, bounding box annotation, and corresponding similar 3D CAD models. Less

  • Question Answering as Global Reasoning over Semantic Abstractions
    Daniel Khashabi, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, and Dan Roth AAAI 2018

    We propose a novel method for exploiting the semantic structure of text to answer multiple-choice questions. The approach is especially suitable for domains that require reasoning over a diverse set of linguistic constructs but have limited training data. To address these challenges, we present the first system, to the best of our knowledge, that reasons over a wide range of semantic abstractions of the text, which are derived using off-the-shelf, general-purpose, pre-trained natural language modules such as semantic role labelers, coreference resolvers, and dependency parsers. Representing multiple abstractions as a family of graphs, we translate question answering (QA) into a search for an optimal subgraph that satisfies certain global and local properties. This formulation generalizes several prior structured QA systems. Our system, SEMANTICILP, demonstrates strong performance on two domains simultaneously. In particular, on a collection of challenging science QA datasets, it outperforms various state-ofthe- art approaches, including neural models, broad coverage information retrieval, and specialized techniques using structured knowledge bases, by 2%-6%. Less

  • SciTail: A Textual Entailment Dataset from Science Question Answering
    Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, and Peter Clark AAAI 2018

    We present a new dataset and model for textual entailment, derived from treating multiple-choice question-answering as an entailment problem. SCITAIL is the first entailment set that is created solely from natural sentences that already exist independently "in the wild" rather than sentences authored specifically for the entailment task. Different from existing entailment datasets, we create hypotheses from science questions and the corresponding answer candidates, and premises from relevant web sentences retrieved from a large corpus. These sentences are often linguistically challenging. This, combined with the high lexical similarity of premise and hypothesis for both entailed and non-entailed pairs, makes this new entailment task particularly difficult. The resulting challenge is evidenced by state-of-the-art textual entailment systems achieving mediocre performance on SCITAIL, especially in comparison to a simple majority class baseline. As a step forward, we demonstrate that one can improve accuracy on SCITAIL by 5% using a new neural model that exploits linguistic structure. Less

  • Approximate Inference via Weighted Rademacher Complexity
    Jonathan Kuck, Ashish Sabharwal, and Stefano Ermon AAAI 2018

    Rademacher complexity is often used to characterize the learnability of a hypothesis class and is known to be related to the class size. We leverage this observation and introduce a new technique for estimating the size of an arbitrary weighted set, defined as the sum of weights of all elements in the set. Our technique provides upper and lower bounds on a novel generalization of Rademacher complexity to the weighted setting in terms of the weighted set size. This generalizes Massart's Lemma, a known upper bound on the Rademacher complexity in terms of the unweighted set size.We show that the weighted Rademacher complexity can be estimated by solving a randomly perturbed optimization problem, allowing us to derive high-probability bounds on the size of any weighted set. We apply our method to the problems of calculating the partition function of an Ising model and computing propositional model counts (#SAT). Our experiments demonstrate that we can produce tighter bounds than competing methods in both the weighted and unweighted settings. Less

  • Pros and Cons of Autonomous Weapons Systems
    Amitai Etzioni and Oren Etzioni Military Review 2017

    Autonomous weapons systems and military robots are progressing from science fiction movies to designers' drawing boards, to engineering laboratories, and to the battlefield. These machines have prompted a debate among military planners, roboticists, and ethicists about the development and deployment of weapons that can perform increasingly advanced functions, including targeting and application of force, with little or no human oversight. Some military experts hold that autonomous weapons systems not only confer significant strategic and tactical advantages in the battleground but also that they are preferable on moral grounds to the use of human combatants. In contrast, critics hold that these weapons should be curbed, if not banned altogether, for a variety of moral and legal reasons. This article first reviews arguments by those who favor autonomous weapons systems and then by those who oppose them. Next, it discusses challenges to limiting and defining autonomous weapons. Finally, it closes with a policy recommendation. Less

  • Men Also Like Shopping: Reducing Gender Bias Amplification using Corpus-level Constraints
    Jieyu Zhao, Tianlu Wang, Mark Yatskar, Vicente Ordóñez, Kai-Wei Chang EMNLP 2017

    Language is increasingly being used to define rich visual recognition problems with supporting image collections sourced from the web. Structured prediction models are used in these tasks to take advantage of correlations between co-occurring labels and visual input but risk inadvertently encoding social biases found in web corpora. In this work, we study data and models associated with multilabel object classification and visual semantic role labeling. We find that (a) datasets for these tasks contain significant gender bias and (b) models trained on these datasets further amplify existing bias. For example, the activity cooking is over 33% more likely to involve females than males in a training set, and a trained model further amplifies the disparity to 68% at test time. We propose to inject corpus-level constraints for calibrating existing structured prediction models and design an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation for collective inference. Our method results in almost no performance loss for the underlying recognition task but decreases the magnitude of bias amplification by 47.5% and 40.5% for multilabel classification and visual semantic role labeling, respectively. Less

  • Interactive Visualization for Linguistic Structure
    Aaron Sarnat, Vidur Joshi, Cristian Petrescu-Prahova, Alvaro Herrasti, Brandon Stilson, and Mark Hopkins EMNLP 2017

    We provide a visualization library and web interface for interactively exploring a parse tree or a forest of parses. The library is not tied to any particular linguistic representation, but provides a generalpurpose API for the interactive exploration of hierarchical linguistic structure. To facilitate rapid understanding of a complex structure, the API offers several important features, including expand/collapse functionality, positional and color cues, explicit visual support for sequential structure, and dynamic highlighting to convey node-to-text correspondence. Less

  • Beyond Sentential Semantic Parsing: Tackling the Math SAT with a Cascade of Tree Transducers
    Mark Hopkins, Cristian Petrescu-Prahova, Roie Levin, Ronan Le Bras, Alvaro Herrasti, and Vidur Joshi EMNLP 2017

    We present an approach for answering questions that span multiple sentences and exhibit sophisticated cross-sentence anaphoric phenomena, evaluating on a rich source of such questions--the math portion of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). By using a tree transducer cascade as its basic architecture, our system (called EUCLID) propagates uncertainty from multiple sources (e.g. coreference resolution or verb interpretation) until it can be confidently resolved. Experiments show the first-ever results (43% recall and 91% precision) on SAT algebra word problems. We also apply EUCLID to the public Dolphin algebra question set, and improve the state-of-the-art F1-score from 73.9% to 77.0%. Less