• Crowdsourcing Multiple Choice Science Questions
    Johannes Welbl, Nelson F. Liu, and Matt Gardner Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text 2017
  • End-to-end Neural Coreference Resolution
    Kenton Lee, Luheng He, Mike Lewis, and Luke Zettlemoyer EMNLP 2017
  • Interactive Visualization for Linguistic Structure
    Aaron Sarnat, Vidur Joshi, Cristian Petrescu-Prahova, Alvaro Herrasti, Brandon Stilson, and Mark Hopkins EMNLP 2017
  • Beyond Sentential Semantic Parsing: Tackling the Math SAT with a Cascade of Tree Transducers
    Mark Hopkins, Cristian Petrescu-Prahova, Roie Levin, Ronan Le Bras, Alvaro Herrasti, and Vidur Joshi EMNLP 2017
  • Neural Semantic Parsing with Type Constraints for Semi-Structured Tables
    Jayant Krishnamurthy, Pradeep Dasigi, and Matt Gardner EMNLP 2017
  • Ontology Aware Token Embeddings for Prepositional Phrase Attachment
    Pradeep Dasigi, Waleed Ammar, Chris Dyer, and Eduard Hovy ACL 2017
  • AI zooms in on highly influential citations
    Oren Etzioni Nature 2017

    The number of times a paper is cited is a poor proxy for its impact (see P. Stephan et al. Nature 544, 411–412; 2017). I suggest relying instead on a new metric that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to capture the subset of an author's or a paper's essential and therefore most highly influential citations. Academics may cite papers for non-essential reasons — out of courtesy, for completeness or to promote their own publications. These superfluous citations can impede literature searches and exaggerate a paper's importance. Less

  • End-to-End Neural Ad-hoc Ranking with Kernel Pooling
    Chenyan Xiong, Zhuyun Dai, Jamie Callan, Zhiyuan Liu, and Russell Power SIGIR 2017

    This paper proposes K-NRM, a kernel based neural model for document ranking. Given a query and a set of documents, K-NRM uses a translation matrix that models word-level similarities via word embeddings, a new kernel-pooling technique that uses kernels to extract multi-level soft match features, and a learning-to-rank layer that combines those features into the final ranking score. The whole model is trained end-to-end. The ranking layer learns desired feature patterns from the pairwise ranking loss. The kernels transfer the feature patterns into soft-match targets at each similarity level and enforce them on the translation matrix. The word embeddings are tuned accordingly so that they can produce the desired soft matches. Experiments on a commercial search engine's query log demonstrate the improvements of K-NRM over prior feature-based and neural-based states-of-the-art, and explain the source of K-NRM's advantage: Its kernel-guided embedding encodes a similarity metric tailored for matching query words to document words, and provides effective multi-level soft matches. Less

  • Tell Me Why: Using Question Answering as Distant Supervision for Answer Justification
    Rebecca Sharp, Mihai Surdeanu, Peter Jansen, Marco A. Valenzuela-Escárcega, Peter Clark, and Michael Hammond CoNNL 2017

    For many applications of question answering (QA), being able to explain why a given model chose an answer is critical. However, the lack of labeled data for answer justifications makes learning this difficult and expensive. Here we propose an approach that uses answer ranking as distant supervision for learning how to select informative justifications, where justifications serve as inferential connections between the question and the correct answer while often containing little lexical overlap with either. We propose a neural network architecture for QA that reranks answer justifications as an intermediate (and human-interpretable) step in answer selection. Our approach is informed by a set of features designed to combine both learned representations and explicit features to capture the connection between questions, answers, and answer justifications. We show that with this end-to-end approach we are able to significantly improve upon a strong IR baseline in both justification ranking (+9% rated highly relevant) and answer selection (+6% P@1). Less

  • Learning What is Essential in Questions
    Daniel Khashabi, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, and Dan Roth CoNNL 2017

    Question answering (QA) systems are easily distracted by irrelevant or redundant words in questions, especially when faced with long or multi-sentence questions in difficult domains. This paper introduces and studies the notion of essential question terms with the goal of improving such QA solvers. We illustrate the importance of essential question terms by showing that humans's ability to answer questions drops significantly when essential terms are eliminated from questions. We then develop a classifier that reliably (90% mean average precision) identifies and ranks essential terms in questions. Finally, we use the classifier to demonstrate that the notion of question term essentiality allows state-of-the-art QA solvers for elementary-level science questions to make better and more informed decisions, improving performance by up to 5%. We also introduce a new dataset of over 2,200 crowd-sourced essential terms annotated science questions. Less