# Papers

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Viewing 1-10 of 482 papers
• ### Did Aristotle Use a Laptop? A Question Answering Benchmark with Implicit Reasoning Strategies

Mor Geva, Daniel Khashabi, Elad Segal, Tushar Khot, Dan Roth, Jonathan BerantTACL2021
A key limitation in current datasets for multi-hop reasoning is that the required steps for answering the question are mentioned in it explicitly. In this work, we introduce STRATEGYQA, a question answering (QA) benchmark where the required reasoning steps are implicit in the question, and should be inferred using a strategy. A fundamental challenge in this setup is how to elicit such creative questions from crowdsourcing workers, while covering a broad range of potential strategies. We propose a data collection procedure that combines term-based priming to inspire annotators, careful control over the annotator population, and adversarial filtering for eliminating reasoning shortcuts. Moreover, we annotate each question with (1) a decomposition into reasoning steps for answering it, and (2) Wikipedia paragraphs that contain the answers to each step. Overall, STRATEGYQA includes 2,780 examples, each consisting of a strategy question, its decomposition, and evidence paragraphs. Analysis shows that questions in STRATEGYQA are short, topicdiverse, and cover a wide range of strategies. Empirically, we show that humans perform well (87%) on this task, while our best baseline reaches an accuracy of ∼ 66%
• ### Extracting a Knowledge Base of Mechanisms from COVID-19 Papers

Aida Amini, T. Hope, David Wadden, Madeleine van Zuylen, E. Horvitz, Roy Schwartz, Hannaneh HajishirziNAACL2021
The urgency of mitigating COVID-19 has spawned a large and diverse body of scientific literature that is challenging for researchers to navigate. This explosion of information has stimulated interest in automated tools to help identify useful knowledge. We have pursued the use of methods for extracting diverse forms of mechanism relations from the natural language of scientific papers. We seek to identify concepts in COVID-19 and related literature which represent activities, functions, associations and causal relations, ranging from cellular processes to economic impacts. We formulate a broad, coarse-grained schema targeting mechanism relations between open, free-form entities. Our approach strikes a balance between expressivity and breadth that supports generalization across diverse concepts. We curate a dataset of scientific papers annotated according to our novel schema. Using an information extraction model trained on this new corpus, we construct a knowledge base (KB) of 2M mechanism relations, which we make publicly available. Our model is able to extract relations at an F1 at least twice that of baselines such as open IE or related scientific IE systems. We conduct experiments examining the ability of our system to retrieve relevant information on viral mechanisms of action, and on applications of AI to COVID-19 research. In both cases, our system identifies relevant information from our automatically-constructed knowledge base with high precision.
• ### SmBoP: Semi-autoregressive Bottom-up Semantic Parsing

The de-facto standard decoding method for semantic parsing in recent years has been to autoregressively decode the abstract syntax tree of the target program using a top-down depth-first traversal. In this work, we propose an alternative approach: a Semi-autoregressive Bottom-up Parser (SmBoP) that constructs at decoding step $t$ the top-$K$ sub-trees of height $\leq t$. Our parser enjoys several benefits compared to top-down autoregressive parsing. First, since sub-trees in each decoding step are generated in parallel, the theoretical runtime is logarithmic rather than linear. Second, our bottom-up approach learns representations with meaningful semantic sub-programs at each step, rather than semantically vague partial trees. Last, SmBoP includes Transformer-based layers that contextualize sub-trees with one another, allowing us, unlike traditional beam-search, to score trees conditioned on other trees that have been previously explored. We apply SmBoP on Spider, a challenging zero-shot semantic parsing benchmark, and show that SmBoP is competitive with top-down autoregressive parsing. On the test set, SmBoP obtains an EM score of $60.5\%$, similar to the best published score for a model that does not use database content, which is at $60.6\%$.
• ### Temporal Reasoning on Implicit Events from Distant Supervision

Ben Zhou, Kyle Richardson, Qiang Ning, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, D. RothNAACL2021
Existing works on temporal reasoning among events described in text focus on modeling relationships between explicitly mentioned events and do not handle event end time effectively. However, human readers can infer from natural language text many implicit events that help them better understand the situation and, consequently, better reason about time. This work proposes a new crowd-sourced dataset, TRACIE, which evaluates systems' understanding of implicit events - events that are not mentioned explicitly in the text but can be inferred from it. This is done via textual entailment instances querying both start and end times of events. We show that TRACIE is challenging for state-of-the-art language models. Our proposed model, SymTime, exploits distant supervision signals from the text itself and reasons over events' start time and duration to infer events' end time points. We show that our approach improves over baseline language models, gaining 5% on the i.i.d. split and 9% on an out-of-distribution test split. Our approach is also general to other annotation schemes, gaining 2%-8% on MATRES, an extrinsic temporal relation benchmark.
• ### Augmenting Scientific Papers with Just-in-Time, Position-Sensitive Definitions of Terms and Symbols

Andrew Head, Kyle Lo, Dongyeop Kang, Raymond Fok, Sam Skjonsberg, Daniel S. Weld, Marti A. HearstCHI2021
Despite the central importance of research papers to scientific progress, they can be difficult to read. Comprehension is often stymied when the information needed to understand a passage resides somewhere else: in another section, or in another paper. In this work, we envision how interfaces can bring definitions of technical terms and symbols to readers when and where they need them most. We introduce ScholarPhi, an augmented reading interface with four novel features: (1) tooltips that surface position-sensitive definitions from elsewhere in a paper, (2) a filter over the paper that "declutters" it to reveal how the term or symbol is used across the paper, (3) automatic equation diagrams that expose multiple definitions in parallel, and (4) an automatically generated glossary of important terms and symbols. A usability study showed that the tool helps researchers of all experience levels read papers. Furthermore, researchers were eager to have ScholarPhi's definitions available to support their everyday reading.
• ### Does the Whole Exceed its Parts? The Effect of AI Explanations on Complementary Team Performance

Gagan Bansal, Tongshuang Wu, Joyce Zhou, Raymond Fok, Besmira Nushi, Ece Kamar, Marco Túlio Ribeiro, Daniel S. WeldCHI2021
Increasingly, organizations are pairing humans with AI systems to improve decision-making and reducing costs. Proponents of human-centered AI argue that team performance can even further improve when the AI model explains its recommendations. However, a careful analysis of existing literature reveals that prior studies observed improvements due to explanations only when the AI, alone, outperformed both the human and the best human-AI team. This raises an important question: can explanations lead to complementary performance, i.e., with accuracy higher than both the human and the AI working alone? We address this question by devising comprehensive studies on human-AI teaming, where participants solve a task with help from an AI system without explanations and from one with varying types of AI explanation support. We carefully controlled to ensure comparable human and AI accuracy across experiments on three NLP datasets (two for sentiment analysis and one for question answering). While we found complementary improvements from AI augmentation, they were not increased by state-of-the-art explanations compared to simpler strategies, such as displaying the AI's confidence. We show that explanations increase the chance that humans will accept the AI's recommendation regardless of whether the AI is correct. While this clarifies the gains in team performance from explanations in prior work, it poses new challenges for human-centered AI: how can we best design systems to produce complementary performance? Can we develop explanatory approaches that help humans decide whether and when to trust AI input?
• ### MULTIMODALQA: COMPLEX QUESTION ANSWERING OVER TEXT, TABLES AND IMAGES

Ankit Gupta, Jonathan BerantICLR2021
When answering complex questions, people can seamlessly combine information from visual, textual and tabular sources. While interest in models that reason over multiple pieces of evidence has surged in recent years, there has been relatively little work on question answering models that reason across multiple modalities. In this paper, we present MULTIMODALQA (MMQA): a challenging question answering dataset that requires joint reasoning over text, tables and images. We create MMQA using a new framework for generating complex multi-modal questions at scale, harvesting tables from Wikipedia, and attaching images and text paragraphs using entities that appear in each table. We then define a formal language that allows us to take questions that can be answered from a single modality, and combine them to generate cross-modal questions. Last, crowdsourcing workers take these automatically generated questions and rephrase them into more fluent language. We create 29,918 questions through this procedure, and empirically demonstrate the necessity of a multi-modal multi-hop approach to solve our task: our multi hop model, ImplicitDecomp, achieves an average F1 of 51.7 over cross-modal questions, substantially outperforming a strong baseline that achieves 38.2 F1, but still lags significantly behind human performance, which is at 90.1 F1.
• ### Bootstrapping Relation Extractors using Syntactic Search by Examples

Matan Eyal, Asaf Amrami, Hillel Taub-Tabib, Yoav GoldbergEACL2021
The advent of neural-networks in NLP brought with it substantial improvements in supervised relation extraction. However, obtaining a sufficient quantity of training data remains a key challenge. In this work we propose a process for bootstrapping training datasets which can be performed quickly by non-NLP-experts. We take advantage of search engines over syntactic-graphs (Such as Shlain et al. (2020)) which expose a friendly by-example syntax. We use these to obtain positive examples by searching for sentences that are syntactically similar to user input examples. We apply this technique to relations from TACRED and DocRED and show that the resulting models are competitive with models trained on manually annotated data and on data obtained from distant supervision. The models also outperform models trained using NLG data augmentation techniques. Extending the search-based approach with the NLG method further improves the results.
• ### First Align, then Predict: Understanding the Cross-Lingual Ability of Multilingual BERT

Benjamin Muller, Yanai Elazar, Benoît Sagot, Djamé SeddahEACL2021
Multilingual pretrained language models have demonstrated remarkable zero-shot crosslingual transfer capabilities. Such transfer emerges by fine-tuning on a task of interest in one language and evaluating on a distinct language, not seen during the fine-tuning. Despite promising results, we still lack a proper understanding of the source of this transfer. Using a novel layer ablation technique and analyses of the model’s internal representations, we show that multilingual BERT, a popular multilingual language model, can be viewed as the stacking of two sub-networks: a multilingual encoder followed by a taskspecific language-agnostic predictor. While the encoder is crucial for cross-lingual transfer and remains mostly unchanged during finetuning, the task predictor has little importance on the transfer and can be reinitialized during fine-tuning. We present extensive experiments with three distinct tasks, seventeen typologically diverse languages and multiple domains to support our hypothesis.
• ### BERTese: Learning to Speak to BERT

Adi Haviv, Jonathan Berant, A. GlobersonEACL2021
Large pre-trained language models have been shown to encode large amounts of world and commonsense knowledge in their parameters, leading to substantial interest in methods for extracting that knowledge. In past work, knowledge was extracted by taking manuallyauthored queries and gathering paraphrases for them using a separate pipeline. In this work, we propose a method for automatically rewriting queries into “BERTese”, a paraphrase query that is directly optimized towards better knowledge extraction. To encourage meaningful rewrites, we add auxiliary loss functions that encourage the query to correspond to actual language tokens. We empirically show our approach outperforms competing baselines, obviating the need for complex pipelines. Moreover, BERTese provides some insight into the type of language that helps language models perform knowledge extraction.
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