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Viewing 1-10 of 503 papers
  • Did Aristotle Use a Laptop? A Question Answering Benchmark with Implicit Reasoning Strategies

    Mor Geva, Daniel Khashabi, Elad Segal, Tushar Khot, Dan Roth, Jonathan BerantTACL2021
    A key limitation in current datasets for multi-hop reasoning is that the required steps for answering the question are mentioned in it explicitly. In this work, we introduce STRATEGYQA, a question answering (QA) benchmark where the required reasoning steps are implicit in the question, and should be inferred using a strategy. A fundamental challenge in this setup is how to elicit such creative questions from crowdsourcing workers, while covering a broad range of potential strategies. We propose a data collection procedure that combines term-based priming to inspire annotators, careful control over the annotator population, and adversarial filtering for eliminating reasoning shortcuts. Moreover, we annotate each question with (1) a decomposition into reasoning steps for answering it, and (2) Wikipedia paragraphs that contain the answers to each step. Overall, STRATEGYQA includes 2,780 examples, each consisting of a strategy question, its decomposition, and evidence paragraphs. Analysis shows that questions in STRATEGYQA are short, topicdiverse, and cover a wide range of strategies. Empirically, we show that humans perform well (87%) on this task, while our best baseline reaches an accuracy of ∼ 66%
  • ProofWriter: Generating Implications, Proofs, and Abductive Statements over Natural Language

    Oyvind Tafjord, B. D. Mishra, P. ClarkFindings of ACL2021
    Transformers have been shown to emulate logical deduction over natural language theories (logical rules expressed in natural language), reliably assigning true/false labels to candidate implications. However, their ability to generate implications of a theory has not yet been demonstrated, and methods for reconstructing proofs of answers are imperfect. In this work we show that a generative model, called ProofWriter, can reliably generate both implications of a theory and the natural language proof(s) that support them. In particular, iterating a 1-step implication generator results in proofs that are highly reliable, and represent actual model decisions (rather than post-hoc rationalizations). On the RuleTaker dataset, the accuracy of ProofWriter’s proofs exceed previous methods by +9% absolute, and in a way that generalizes to proof depths unseen in training and on out-of-domain problems. We also show that generative techniques can perform a type of abduction with high precision: Given a theory and an unprovable conclusion, identify a missing fact that allows the conclusion to be proved, along with a proof. These results significantly improve the viability of neural methods for systematically reasoning over natural language.
  • Critical Thinking for Language Models

    Gregor Betz, Christian Voigt, Kyle RichardsonIWCS2021
    This paper takes a first step towards a critical thinking curriculum for neural auto-regressive language models. We introduce a synthetic text corpus of deductively valid arguments, and use this artificial argument corpus to train and evaluate GPT-2. Significant transfer learning effects can be observed: Training a model on a few simple core schemes allows it to accurately complete conclusions of different, and more complex types of arguments, too. The language models seem to connect and generalize the core argument schemes in a correct way. Moreover, we obtain consistent and promising results for the GLUE and SNLI benchmarks. The findings suggest that there might exist a representative sample of paradigmatic instances of good reasoning that will suffice to acquire general reasoning skills and that might form the core of a critical thinking curriculum for language models.
  • Extracting a Knowledge Base of Mechanisms from COVID-19 Papers

    Aida Amini, T. Hope, David Wadden, Madeleine van Zuylen, E. Horvitz, Roy Schwartz, Hannaneh HajishirziNAACL2021
    The urgency of mitigating COVID-19 has spawned a large and diverse body of scientific literature that is challenging for researchers to navigate. This explosion of information has stimulated interest in automated tools to help identify useful knowledge. We have pursued the use of methods for extracting diverse forms of mechanism relations from the natural language of scientific papers. We seek to identify concepts in COVID-19 and related literature which represent activities, functions, associations and causal relations, ranging from cellular processes to economic impacts. We formulate a broad, coarse-grained schema targeting mechanism relations between open, free-form entities. Our approach strikes a balance between expressivity and breadth that supports generalization across diverse concepts. We curate a dataset of scientific papers annotated according to our novel schema. Using an information extraction model trained on this new corpus, we construct a knowledge base (KB) of 2M mechanism relations, which we make publicly available. Our model is able to extract relations at an F1 at least twice that of baselines such as open IE or related scientific IE systems. We conduct experiments examining the ability of our system to retrieve relevant information on viral mechanisms of action, and on applications of AI to COVID-19 research. In both cases, our system identifies relevant information from our automatically-constructed knowledge base with high precision.
  • "I'm Not Mad": Commonsense Implications of Negation and Contradiction

    Liwei Jiang, Antoine Bosselut, Chandra Bhagavatula, Yejin ChoiNAACL2021
    Natural language inference requires reasoning about contradictions, negations, and their commonsense implications. Given a simple premise (e.g., “I’m mad at you”), humans can reason about the varying shades of contradictory statements ranging from straightforward negations (“I’m not mad at you”) to commonsense contradictions (“I’m happy”). Moreover, these negated or contradictory statements shift the commonsense implications of the original premise in nontrivial ways. For example, while “I’m mad” implies “I’m unhappy about something,” negating the premise (i.e., “I’m not mad”) does not necessarily negate the corresponding commonsense implications. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive study focusing on commonsense implications of negated statements and contradictions. We introduce ANION1, a new commonsense knowledge graph with 624K if-then rules focusing on negated and contradictory events. We then present joint generative and discriminative inference models for this new resource, providing novel empirical insights on how logical negations and commonsense contradictions reshape the commonsense implications of their original premises.
  • NeuroLogic Decoding: (Un)supervised Neural Text Generation with Predicate Logic Constraints

    Ximing Lu, Peter West, Rowan Zellers, Ronan Le Bras, Chandra Bhagavatula, Yejin ChoiNAACL2021
    Conditional text generation often requires lexical constraints, i.e., which words should or shouldn't be included in the output text. While the dominant recipe for conditional text generation has been large-scale pretrained language models that are finetuned on the task-specific training data, such models do not learn to follow the underlying constraints reliably, even when supervised with large amounts of task-specific examples. We propose NeuroLogic Decoding, a simple yet effective algorithm that enables neural language models -- supervised or not -- to generate fluent text while satisfying complex lexical constraints. Our approach is powerful yet efficient. It handles any set of lexical constraints that is expressible under predicate logic, while its asymptotic runtime is equivalent to conventional beam search. Empirical results on four benchmarks show that NeuroLogic Decoding outperforms previous approaches, including algorithms that handle a subset of our constraints. Moreover, we find that unsupervised models with NeuroLogic Decoding often outperform supervised models with conventional decoding, even when the latter is based on considerably larger networks. Our results suggest the limit of large-scale neural networks for fine-grained controllable generation and the promise of inference-time algorithms.
  • SmBoP: Semi-autoregressive Bottom-up Semantic Parsing

    Ohad Rubin and Jonathan BerantNAACL2021
    The de-facto standard decoding method for semantic parsing in recent years has been to autoregressively decode the abstract syntax tree of the target program using a top-down depth-first traversal. In this work, we propose an alternative approach: a Semi-autoregressive Bottom-up Parser (SmBoP) that constructs at decoding step $t$ the top-$K$ sub-trees of height $\leq t$. Our parser enjoys several benefits compared to top-down autoregressive parsing. First, since sub-trees in each decoding step are generated in parallel, the theoretical runtime is logarithmic rather than linear. Second, our bottom-up approach learns representations with meaningful semantic sub-programs at each step, rather than semantically vague partial trees. Last, SmBoP includes Transformer-based layers that contextualize sub-trees with one another, allowing us, unlike traditional beam-search, to score trees conditioned on other trees that have been previously explored. We apply SmBoP on Spider, a challenging zero-shot semantic parsing benchmark, and show that SmBoP is competitive with top-down autoregressive parsing. On the test set, SmBoP obtains an EM score of $60.5\%$, similar to the best published score for a model that does not use database content, which is at $60.6\%$.
  • Temporal Reasoning on Implicit Events from Distant Supervision

    Ben Zhou, Kyle Richardson, Qiang Ning, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, D. RothNAACL2021
    Existing works on temporal reasoning among events described in text focus on modeling relationships between explicitly mentioned events and do not handle event end time effectively. However, human readers can infer from natural language text many implicit events that help them better understand the situation and, consequently, better reason about time. This work proposes a new crowd-sourced dataset, TRACIE, which evaluates systems' understanding of implicit events - events that are not mentioned explicitly in the text but can be inferred from it. This is done via textual entailment instances querying both start and end times of events. We show that TRACIE is challenging for state-of-the-art language models. Our proposed model, SymTime, exploits distant supervision signals from the text itself and reasons over events' start time and duration to infer events' end time points. We show that our approach improves over baseline language models, gaining 5% on the i.i.d. split and 9% on an out-of-distribution test split. Our approach is also general to other annotation schemes, gaining 2%-8% on MATRES, an extrinsic temporal relation benchmark.
  • Text Modular Networks: Learning to Decompose Tasks in the Language of Existing Models

    Tushar Khot, Daniel Khashabi, Kyle Richardson, Peter Clark, Ashish SabharwalNAACL2021
    A common approach to solve complex tasks is by breaking them down into simple sub-problems that can then be solved by simpler modules. However, these approaches often need to be designed and trained specifically for each complex task. We propose a general approach, Text Modular Networks(TMNs), where the system learns to decompose any complex task into the language of existing models. Specifically, we focus on Question Answering (QA) and learn to decompose complex questions into sub-questions answerable by existing QA models. TMNs treat these models as blackboxes and learn their textual input-output behavior (i.e., their language) through their task datasets. Our next-question generator then learns to sequentially produce sub-questions that help answer a given complex question. These sub-questions are posed to different existing QA models and, together with their answers, provide a natural language explanation of the exact reasoning used by the model. We present the first system, incorporating a neural factoid QA model and a symbolic calculator, that uses decomposition for the DROP dataset, while also generalizing to the multi-hop HotpotQA dataset. Our system, ModularQA, outperforms a cross-task baseline by 10-60 F1 points and performs comparable to task-specific systems, while also providing an easy-to-read explanation of its reasoning.
  • Simplified Data Wrangling with ir_datasets

    Sean MacAvaney, Andrew Yates, Sergey Feldman, Doug Downey, Arman Cohan, Nazli GoharianarXiv2021
    Managing the data for Information Retrieval (IR) experiments can be challenging. Dataset documentation is scattered across the Internet and once one obtains a copy of the data, there are numerous different data formats to work with. Even basic formats can have subtle dataset-specific nuances that need to be considered for proper use. To help mitigate these challenges, we introduce a new robust and lightweight tool (ir_datasets) for acquiring, managing, and performing typical operations over datasets used in IR. We primarily focus on textual datasets used for ad-hoc search. This tool provides both a python and command line interface to numerous IR datasets and benchmarks. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive tool of its kind. Integrations with popular IR indexing and experimentation toolkits demonstrate the tool’s utility. We also provide documentation of these datasets through the ir_datasets catalog: The catalog acts as a hub for information on datasets used in IR, providing core information about what data each benchmark provides as well as links to more detailed information. We welcome community contributions and intend to continue to maintain and grow this tool. ACM Reference Format: Sean MacAvaney, Andrew Yates, Sergey Feldman, Doug Downey, Arman Cohan, and Nazli Goharian. . Simplified Data Wrangling with ir_datasets.
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