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Viewing 5 papers from 2019
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    • ICLR 2019
      Alon Jacovi, Guy Hadash, Einat Kermany, Boaz Carmeli, Ofer Lavi, George Kour, Jonathan Berant

      Deep neural networks work well at approximating complicated functions when provided with data and trained by gradient descent methods. At the same time, there is a vast amount of existing functions that programmatically solve different tasks in a precise manner eliminating the need for training. In many cases, it is possible to decompose a task to a series of functions, of which for some we may prefer to use a neural network to learn the functionality, while for others the preferred method would be to use existing black-box functions. We propose a method for end-to-end training of a base neural network that integrates calls to existing black-box functions. We do so by approximating the black-box functionality with a differentiable neural network in a way that drives the base network to comply with the black-box function interface during the end-to-end optimization process. At inference time, we replace the differentiable estimator with its external black-box non-differentiable counterpart such that the base network output matches the input arguments of the black-box function. Using this "Estimate and Replace" paradigm, we train a neural network, end to end, to compute the input to black-box functionality while eliminating the need for intermediate labels. We show that by leveraging the existing precise black-box function during inference, the integrated model generalizes better than a fully differentiable model, and learns more efficiently compared to RL-based methods.

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    • AAAI 2019
      Arindam Mitra, Peter Clark, Oyvind Tafjord, Chitta Baral

      While in recent years machine learning (ML) based approaches have been the popular approach in developing end-to-end question answering systems, such systems often struggle when additional knowledge is needed to correctly answer the questions. Proposed alternatives involve translating the question and the natural language text to a logical representation and then use logical reasoning. However, this alternative falters when the size of the text gets bigger. To address this we propose an approach that does logical reasoning over premises written in natural language text. The proposed method uses recent features of Answer Set Programming (ASP) to call external NLP modules (which may be based on ML) which perform simple textual entailment. To test our approach we develop a corpus based on the life cycle questions and showed that Our system achieves up to 18% performance gain when compared to standard MCQ solvers.

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    • AAAI 2019
      Oyvind Tafjord, Peter Clark, Matt Gardner, Wen-tau Yih, Ashish Sabharwal

      Many natural language questions require recognizing and reasoning with qualitative relationships (e.g., in science, economics, and medicine), but are challenging to answer with corpus-based methods. Qualitative modeling provides tools that support such reasoning, but the semantic parsing task of mapping questions into those models has formidable challenges. We present QuaRel, a dataset of diverse story questions involving qualitative relationships that characterize these challenges, and techniques that begin to address them. The dataset has 2771 questions relating 19 different types of quantities. For example, "Jenny observes that the robot vacuum cleaner moves slower on the living room carpet than on the bedroom carpet. Which carpet has more friction?" We contribute (1) a simple and flexible conceptual framework for representing these kinds of questions; (2) the QuaRel dataset, including logical forms, exemplifying the parsing challenges; and (3) two novel models for this task, built as extensions of type-constrained semantic parsing. The first of these models (called QuaSP+) significantly outperforms off-the-shelf tools on QuaRel. The second (QuaSP+Zero) demonstrates zero-shot capability, i.e., the ability to handle new qualitative relationships without requiring additional training data, something not possible with previous models. This work thus makes inroads into answering complex, qualitative questions that require reasoning, and scaling to new relationships at low cost. The dataset and models are available at this http URL.

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    • AAAI 2019
      Maarten Sap, Ronan LeBras, Emily Allaway, Chandra Bhagavatula, Nicholas Lourie, Hannah Rashkin, Brendan Roof, Noah A. Smith, Yejin Choi

      We present ATOMIC, an atlas of everyday commonsense reasoning, organized through 877k textual descriptions of inferential knowledge. Compared to existing resources that center around taxonomic knowledge, ATOMIC focuses on inferential knowledge organized as typed if-then relations with variables (e.g., "if X pays Y a compliment, then Y will likely return the compliment"). We propose nine if-then relation types to distinguish causes vs. effects, agents vs. themes, voluntary vs. involuntary events, and actions vs. mental states. By generatively training on the rich inferential knowledge described in ATOMIC, we show that neural models can acquire simple commonsense capabilities and reason about previously unseen events. Experimental results demonstrate that multitask models that incorporate the hierarchical structure of if-then relation types lead to more accurate inference compared to models trained in isolation, as measured by both automatic and human evaluation.

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    • arXiv 2019
      Daniel Khashabi, Erfan Sadeqi Azer, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, Dan Roth

      Recent systems for natural language understanding are strong at overcoming linguistic variability for lookup style reasoning. Yet, their accuracy drops dramatically as the number of reasoning steps increases. We present the first formal framework to study such empirical observations, addressing the ambiguity, redundancy, incompleteness, and inaccuracy that the use of language introduces when representing a hidden conceptual space. Our formal model uses two interrelated spaces: a conceptual "meaning space" that is unambiguous and complete but hidden, and a linguistic "symbol space" that captures a noisy grounding of the meaning space in the symbols or words of a language. We apply this framework to study the "connectivity problem" in undirected graphs -- a core reasoning problem that forms the basis for more complex multi-hop reasoning. We show that it is indeed possible to construct a high-quality algorithm for detecting connectivity in the (latent) meaning graph, based on an observed noisy symbol graph, as long as the noise is below our quantified noise level and only a few hops are needed. On the other hand, we also prove an impossibility result: if a query requires a large number (specifically, logarithmic in the size of the meaning graph) of hops, no reasoning system operating over the symbol graph is likely to recover any useful property of the meaning graph. This highlights a fundamental barrier for a class of reasoning problems and systems, and suggests the need to limit the distance between the two spaces, rather than investing in multi-hop reasoning with "many" hops.

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