Learn more about AI2's Lasting Impact Award
All Projects
All Years
Viewing 11-20 of 519 papers
  • PIGLeT: Language Grounding Through Neuro-Symbolic Interaction in a 3D World

    Rowan Zellers, Ari Holtzman, Matthew E. Peters, R. Mottaghi, Aniruddha Kembhavi, A. Farhadi, Yejin ChoiACL2021
    We propose PIGLeT: a model that learns physical commonsense knowledge through interaction, and then uses this knowledge to ground language. We factorize PIGLeT into a physical dynamics model, and a separate language model. Our dynamics model learns not just what objects are but also what they do: glass cups break when thrown, plastic ones don’t. We then use it as the interface to our language model, giving us a unified model of linguistic form and grounded meaning. PIGLeT can read a sentence, simulate neurally what might happen next, and then communicate that result through a literal symbolic representation, or natural language. Experimental results show that our model effectively learns world dynamics, along with how to communicate them. It is able to correctly forecast “what happens next” given an English sentence over 80% of the time, outperforming a 100x larger, text-to-text approach by over 10%. Likewise, its natural language summaries of physical interactions are also judged by humans as more accurate than LM alternatives. We present comprehensive analysis showing room for future work.
  • Question Decomposition with Dependency Graphs

    Matan Hasson, Jonathan BerantACL-IJCNLP • 15th Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP2021
    QDMR is a meaning representation for complex questions, which decomposes questions into a sequence of atomic steps. While stateof-the-art QDMR parsers use the common sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) approach, a QDMR structure fundamentally describes labeled relations between spans in the input question, and thus dependency-based approaches seem appropriate for this task. In this work, we present a QDMR parser that is based on dependency graphs (DGs), where nodes in the graph are words and edges describe logical relations that correspond to the different computation steps. We propose (a) a nonautoregressive graph parser, where all graph edges are computed simultaneously, and (b) a seq2seq parser that uses gold graph as auxiliary supervision. We find that a graph parser leads to a moderate reduction in performance (0.47→0.44), but to a 16x speed-up in inference time due to the non-autoregressive nature of the parser, and to improved sample complexity compared to a seq2seq model. Second, a seq2seq model trained with auxiliary graph supervision has better generalization to new domains compared to a seq2seq model, and also performs better on questions with long sequences of computation steps.
  • Shortformer: Better Language Modeling using Shorter Inputs

    Ofir Press, Noah A. Smith, M. LewisACL2021
    We explore the benefits of decreasing the input length of transformers. First, we show that initially training the model on short subsequences, before moving on to longer ones, both reduces overall training time and, surprisingly, gives a large improvement in perplexity. We then show how to improve the efficiency of recurrence methods in transformers, which let models condition on previously processed tokens (when generating sequences that are larger than the maximal length that the transformer can handle at once). Existing methods require computationally expensive relative position embeddings; we introduce a simple alternative of adding absolute position embeddings to queries and keys instead of to word embeddings, which efficiently produces superior results. By combining these techniques, we increase training speed by 65%, make generation nine times faster, and substantially improve perplexity on WikiText-103, without adding any parameters.
  • ProofWriter: Generating Implications, Proofs, and Abductive Statements over Natural Language

    Oyvind Tafjord, B. D. Mishra, P. ClarkFindings of ACL2021
    Transformers have been shown to emulate logical deduction over natural language theories (logical rules expressed in natural language), reliably assigning true/false labels to candidate implications. However, their ability to generate implications of a theory has not yet been demonstrated, and methods for reconstructing proofs of answers are imperfect. In this work we show that a generative model, called ProofWriter, can reliably generate both implications of a theory and the natural language proof(s) that support them. In particular, iterating a 1-step implication generator results in proofs that are highly reliable, and represent actual model decisions (rather than post-hoc rationalizations). On the RuleTaker dataset, the accuracy of ProofWriter’s proofs exceed previous methods by +9% absolute, and in a way that generalizes to proof depths unseen in training and on out-of-domain problems. We also show that generative techniques can perform a type of abduction with high precision: Given a theory and an unprovable conclusion, identify a missing fact that allows the conclusion to be proved, along with a proof. These results significantly improve the viability of neural methods for systematically reasoning over natural language.
  • ParsiNLU: A Suite of Language Understanding Challenges for Persian

    Daniel Khashabi, Arman Cohan, Siamak Shakeri, et al. TACL2021
    Despite the progress made in recent years in addressing natural language understanding (NLU) challenges, the majority of this progress remains to be concentrated on resource-rich languages like English. This work focuses on Persian language, one of the widely spoken languages in the world, and yet there are few NLU datasets available for this rich language. The availability of high-quality evaluation datasets is a necessity for reliable assessment of the progress on different NLU tasks and domains. We introduce ParsiNLU, the first benchmark in Persian language that includes a range of high-level tasks -- Reading Comprehension, Textual Entailment, etc. These datasets are collected in a multitude of ways, often involving manual annotations by native speakers. This results in over 14.5$k$ new instances across 6 distinct NLU tasks. Besides, we present the first results on state-of-the-art monolingual and multi-lingual pre-trained language-models on this benchmark and compare them with human performance, which provides valuable insights into our ability to tackle natural language understanding challenges in Persian. We hope ParsiNLU fosters further research and advances in Persian language understanding.
  • Infusing Finetuning with Semantic Dependencies

    Zhaofeng Wu, Hao Peng, Noah A. SmithTACL2021
    Abstract For natural language processing systems, two kinds of evidence support the use of text representations from neural language models “pretrained” on large unannotated corpora: performance on application-inspired benchmarks (Peters et al., 2018, inter alia), and the emergence of syntactic abstractions in those representations (Tenney et al., 2019, inter alia). On the other hand, the lack of grounded supervision calls into question how well these representations can ever capture meaning (Bender and Koller, 2020). We apply novel probes to recent language models— specifically focusing on predicate-argument structure as operationalized by semantic dependencies (Ivanova et al., 2012)—and find that, unlike syntax, semantics is not brought to the surface by today’s pretrained models. We then use convolutional graph encoders to explicitly incorporate semantic parses into task-specific finetuning, yielding benefits to natural language understanding (NLU) tasks in the GLUE benchmark. This approach demonstrates the potential for general-purpose (rather than task-specific) linguistic supervision, above and beyond conventional pretraining and finetuning. Several diagnostics help to localize the benefits of our approach.
  • Provable Limitations of Acquiring Meaning from Ungrounded Form: What will Future Language Models Understand?

    William Merrill, Yoav Goldberg, Roy Schwartz, Noah A. SmithTACL2021
    Language models trained on billions of tokens have recently led to unprecedented results on many NLP tasks. This success raises the question of whether, in principle, a system can ever “understand” raw text without access to some form of grounding. We formally investigate the abilities of ungrounded systems to acquire meaning. Our analysis focuses on the role of “assertions”: contexts within raw text that provide indirect clues about underlying semantics. We study whether assertions enable a system to emulate representations preserving semantic relations like equivalence. We find that assertions enable semantic emulation if all expressions in the language are referentially transparent. However, if the language uses non-transparent patterns like variable binding, we show that emulation can become an uncomputable problem. Finally, we discuss differences between our formal model and natural language, exploring how our results generalize to a modal setting and other semantic relations. Together, our results suggest that assertions in code or language do not provide sufficient signal to fully emulate semantic representations. We formalize ways in which ungrounded language models appear to be fundamentally limited in their ability to “understand”.
  • All That’s ‘Human’ Is Not Gold: Evaluating Human Evaluation of Generated Text

    Elizabeth Clark, Tal August, Sofia Serrano, Nikita Haduong, Suchin Gururangan, Noah A. SmitharXiv2021
    Human evaluations are typically considered the gold standard in natural language generation, but as models' fluency improves, how well can evaluators detect and judge machine-generated text? We run a study assessing non-experts' ability to distinguish between human- and machine-authored text (GPT2 and GPT3) in three domains (stories, news articles, and recipes). We find that, without training, evaluators distinguished between GPT3- and human-authored text at random chance level. We explore three approaches for quickly training evaluators to better identify GPT3-authored text (detailed instructions, annotated examples, and paired examples) and find that while evaluators' accuracy improved up to 55%, it did not significantly improve across the three domains. Given the inconsistent results across text domains and the often contradictory reasons evaluators gave for their judgments, we examine the role untrained human evaluations play in NLG evaluation and provide recommendations to NLG researchers for improving human evaluations of text generated from state-of-the-art models.
  • Critical Thinking for Language Models

    Gregor Betz, Christian Voigt, Kyle RichardsonIWCS2021
    This paper takes a first step towards a critical thinking curriculum for neural auto-regressive language models. We introduce a synthetic text corpus of deductively valid arguments, and use this artificial argument corpus to train and evaluate GPT-2. Significant transfer learning effects can be observed: Training a model on a few simple core schemes allows it to accurately complete conclusions of different, and more complex types of arguments, too. The language models seem to connect and generalize the core argument schemes in a correct way. Moreover, we obtain consistent and promising results for the GLUE and SNLI benchmarks. The findings suggest that there might exist a representative sample of paradigmatic instances of good reasoning that will suffice to acquire general reasoning skills and that might form the core of a critical thinking curriculum for language models.
  • Memory-efficient Transformers via Top-k Attention

    Ankit Gupta, Guy Dar, Shaya Goodman, David Ciprut, Jonathan BerantarXiv2021
    Following the success of dot-product attention in Transformers, numerous approximations have been recently proposed to address its quadratic complexity with respect to the input length. While these variants are memory and compute efficient, it is not possible to directly use them with popular pre-trained language models trained using vanilla attention, without an expensive corrective pre-training stage. In this work, we propose a simple yet highly accurate approximation for vanilla attention. We process the queries in chunks, and for each query, compute the top-k scores with respect to the keys. Our approach offers several advantages: (a) its memory usage is linear in the input size, similar to linear attention variants, such as Performer and RFA (b) it is a drop-in replacement for vanilla attention that does not require any corrective pre-training, and (c) it can also lead to significant memory savings in the feed-forward layers after casting them into the familiar query-keyvalue framework. We evaluate the quality of top-k approximation for multi-head attention layers on the Long Range Arena Benchmark, and for feed-forward layers of T5 and UnifiedQA on multiple QA datasets. We show our approach leads to accuracy that is nearly-identical to vanilla attention in multiple setups including training from scratch, fine-tuning, and zero-shot inference.
All Projects
All Years