# Papers

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Viewing 11-20 of 485 papers
• ### Bootstrapping Relation Extractors using Syntactic Search by Examples

Matan Eyal, Asaf Amrami, Hillel Taub-Tabib, Yoav GoldbergEACL2021
The advent of neural-networks in NLP brought with it substantial improvements in supervised relation extraction. However, obtaining a sufficient quantity of training data remains a key challenge. In this work we propose a process for bootstrapping training datasets which can be performed quickly by non-NLP-experts. We take advantage of search engines over syntactic-graphs (Such as Shlain et al. (2020)) which expose a friendly by-example syntax. We use these to obtain positive examples by searching for sentences that are syntactically similar to user input examples. We apply this technique to relations from TACRED and DocRED and show that the resulting models are competitive with models trained on manually annotated data and on data obtained from distant supervision. The models also outperform models trained using NLG data augmentation techniques. Extending the search-based approach with the NLG method further improves the results.
• ### First Align, then Predict: Understanding the Cross-Lingual Ability of Multilingual BERT

Benjamin Muller, Yanai Elazar, Benoît Sagot, Djamé SeddahEACL2021
Multilingual pretrained language models have demonstrated remarkable zero-shot crosslingual transfer capabilities. Such transfer emerges by fine-tuning on a task of interest in one language and evaluating on a distinct language, not seen during the fine-tuning. Despite promising results, we still lack a proper understanding of the source of this transfer. Using a novel layer ablation technique and analyses of the model’s internal representations, we show that multilingual BERT, a popular multilingual language model, can be viewed as the stacking of two sub-networks: a multilingual encoder followed by a taskspecific language-agnostic predictor. While the encoder is crucial for cross-lingual transfer and remains mostly unchanged during finetuning, the task predictor has little importance on the transfer and can be reinitialized during fine-tuning. We present extensive experiments with three distinct tasks, seventeen typologically diverse languages and multiple domains to support our hypothesis.
• ### BERTese: Learning to Speak to BERT

Adi Haviv, Jonathan Berant, A. GlobersonEACL2021
Large pre-trained language models have been shown to encode large amounts of world and commonsense knowledge in their parameters, leading to substantial interest in methods for extracting that knowledge. In past work, knowledge was extracted by taking manuallyauthored queries and gathering paraphrases for them using a separate pipeline. In this work, we propose a method for automatically rewriting queries into “BERTese”, a paraphrase query that is directly optimized towards better knowledge extraction. To encourage meaningful rewrites, we add auxiliary loss functions that encourage the query to correspond to actual language tokens. We empirically show our approach outperforms competing baselines, obviating the need for complex pipelines. Moreover, BERTese provides some insight into the type of language that helps language models perform knowledge extraction.
• ### Discourse Understanding and Factual Consistency in Abstractive Summarization

Saadia Gabriel, Antoine Bosselut, Jeff Da, Ari Holtzman, Jan Buys, Kyle Lo, Asli Celikyilmaz, Yejin ChoiEACL2021
We introduce Cooperative Generator-Discriminator Networks (Co-opNet), a general framework for abstractive summarization with distinct modeling of the narrative flow in the output summary. Most current approaches to abstractive summarization, in contrast, are based on datasets whose target summaries are either a single sentence, or a bag of standalone sentences (e.g., extracted highlights of a story), neither of which allows for learning coherent narrative flow in the output summaries. To promote research toward abstractive summarization with narrative flow, we first introduce a new dataset, Scientific Abstract SummarieS (SASS), where the abstracts are used as proxy gold summaries for scientific articles. We then propose Co-opNet, a novel transformer-based framework where the generator works with the discourse discriminator to compose a long-form summary. Empirical results demonstrate that Co-opNet learns to summarize with considerably improved global coherence compared to competitive baselines
• ### Evaluating the Evaluation of Diversity in Natural Language Generation

Guy Tevet, Jonathan BerantEACL2021
Despite growing interest in natural language generation (NLG) models that produce diverse outputs, there is currently no principled method for evaluating the diversity of an NLG system. In this work, we propose a framework for evaluating diversity metrics. The framework measures the correlation between a proposed diversity metric and a diversity parameter, a single parameter that controls some aspect of diversity in generated text. For example, a diversity parameter might be a binary variable used to instruct crowdsourcing workers to generate text with either low or high content diversity. We demonstrate the utility of our framework by: (a) establishing best practices for eliciting diversity judgments from humans, (b) showing that humans substantially outperform automatic metrics in estimating content diversity, and (c) demonstrating that existing methods for controlling diversity by tuning a "decoding parameter" mostly affect form but not meaning. Our framework can advance the understanding of different diversity metrics, an essential step on the road towards better NLG systems.
• ### Towards General Purpose Vision Systems

Tanmay Gupta, A. Kamath, Aniruddha Kembhavi, Derek HoiemarXiv2021
• ### Visual Room Rearrangement

Luca Weihs, Matt Deitke, Aniruddha Kembhavi, R. MottaghiarXiv2021
There has been a significant recent progress in the field of Embodied AI with researchers developing models and algorithms enabling embodied agents to navigate and interact within completely unseen environments. In this paper, we propose a new dataset and baseline models for the task of Rearrangement. We particularly focus on the task of Room Rearrangement: an agent begins by exploring a room and recording objects’ initial configurations. We then remove the agent and change the poses and states (e.g., open/closed) of some objects in the room. The agent must restore the initial configurations of all objects in the room. Our dataset, named RoomR, includes 6,000 distinct rearrangement settings involving 72 different object types in 120 scenes. Our experiments show that solving this challenging interactive task that involves navigation and object interaction is beyond the capabilities of the current state-of-the-art techniques for embodied tasks and we are still very far from achieving perfect performance on these types of tasks.
• ### LayoutParser: A Unified Toolkit for Deep Learning Based Document Image Analysis

Zejiang Shen, Ruochen Zhang, Melissa Dell, B. Lee, Jacob Carlson, Weining LiarXiv2021
Recent advances in document image analysis (DIA) have been primarily driven by the application of neural networks. Ideally, research outcomes could be easily deployed in production and extended for further investigation. However, various factors like loosely organized codebases and sophisticated model configurations complicate the easy reuse of important innovations by a wide audience. Though there have been on-going efforts to improve reusability and simplify deep learning (DL) model development in disciplines like natural language processing and computer vision, none of them are optimized for challenges in the domain of DIA. This represents a major gap in the existing toolkit, as DIA is central to academic research across a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. This paper introduces LayoutParser, an open-source library for streamlining the usage of DL in DIA research and applications. The core LayoutParser library comes with a set of simple and intuitive interfaces for applying and customizing DL models for layout detection, character recognition, and many other document processing tasks. To promote extensibility, LayoutParser also incorporates a community platform for sharing both pre-trained models and full document digitization pipelines. We demonstrate that LayoutParser is helpful for both lightweight and large-scale digitization pipelines in real-word use cases. The library is publicly available at https://layout-parser.github.io.
• ### Thinking Aloud: Dynamic Context Generation Improves Zero-Shot Reasoning Performance of GPT-2

G. Betz, Kyle Richardson, Christian VoigtarXiv2021
Thinking aloud is an effective meta-cognitive strategy human reasoners apply to solve difficult problems. We suggest to improve the reasoning ability of pre-trained neural language models in a similar way, namely by expanding a task’s context with problem elaborations that are dynamically generated by the language model itself. Our main result is that dynamic problem elaboration significantly improves the zero-shot performance of GPT-2 in a deductive reasoning and natural language inference task: While the model uses a syntactic heuristic for predicting an answer, it is capable (to some degree) of generating reasoned additional context which facilitates the successful application of its heuristic. We explore different ways of generating elaborations, including fewshot learning, and find that their relative performance varies with the specific problem characteristics (such as problem difficulty). Moreover, the effectiveness of an elaboration can be explained in terms of the degree to which the elaboration semantically coheres with the corresponding problem. In particular, elaborations that are most faithful to the original problem description may boost accuracy by up to 24%.
• ### Value-aware Approximate Attention

Ankit Gupta, Jonathan BerantarXiv2021
Following the success of dot-product attention in Transformers, numerous approximations have been recently proposed to address its quadratic complexity with respect to the input length. However, all approximations thus far have ignored the contribution of the $\textit{value vectors}$ to the quality of approximation. In this work, we argue that research efforts should be directed towards approximating the true output of the attention sub-layer, which includes the value vectors. We propose a value-aware objective, and show theoretically and empirically that an optimal approximation of a value-aware objective substantially outperforms an optimal approximation that ignores values, in the context of language modeling. Moreover, we show that the choice of kernel function for computing attention similarity can substantially affect the quality of sparse approximations, where kernel functions that are less skewed are more affected by the value vectors.
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