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  • Did Aristotle Use a Laptop? A Question Answering Benchmark with Implicit Reasoning Strategies

    Mor Geva, Daniel Khashabi, Elad Segal, Tushar Khot, Dan Roth, Jonathan BerantTACL2021
    A key limitation in current datasets for multi-hop reasoning is that the required steps for answering the question are mentioned in it explicitly. In this work, we introduce STRATEGYQA, a question answering (QA) benchmark where the required reasoning steps are implicit in the question, and should be inferred using a strategy. A fundamental challenge in this setup is how to elicit such creative questions from crowdsourcing workers, while covering a broad range of potential strategies. We propose a data collection procedure that combines term-based priming to inspire annotators, careful control over the annotator population, and adversarial filtering for eliminating reasoning shortcuts. Moreover, we annotate each question with (1) a decomposition into reasoning steps for answering it, and (2) Wikipedia paragraphs that contain the answers to each step. Overall, STRATEGYQA includes 2,780 examples, each consisting of a strategy question, its decomposition, and evidence paragraphs. Analysis shows that questions in STRATEGYQA are short, topicdiverse, and cover a wide range of strategies. Empirically, we show that humans perform well (87%) on this task, while our best baseline reaches an accuracy of ∼ 66%
  • SmBoP: Semi-autoregressive Bottom-up Semantic Parsing

    Ohad Rubin and Jonathan BerantNAACL2021
    The de-facto standard decoding method for semantic parsing in recent years has been to autoregressively decode the abstract syntax tree of the target program using a top-down depth-first traversal. In this work, we propose an alternative approach: a Semi-autoregressive Bottom-up Parser (SmBoP) that constructs at decoding step $t$ the top-$K$ sub-trees of height $\leq t$. Our parser enjoys several benefits compared to top-down autoregressive parsing. First, since sub-trees in each decoding step are generated in parallel, the theoretical runtime is logarithmic rather than linear. Second, our bottom-up approach learns representations with meaningful semantic sub-programs at each step, rather than semantically vague partial trees. Last, SmBoP includes Transformer-based layers that contextualize sub-trees with one another, allowing us, unlike traditional beam-search, to score trees conditioned on other trees that have been previously explored. We apply SmBoP on Spider, a challenging zero-shot semantic parsing benchmark, and show that SmBoP is competitive with top-down autoregressive parsing. On the test set, SmBoP obtains an EM score of $60.5\%$, similar to the best published score for a model that does not use database content, which is at $60.6\%$.

    Ankit Gupta, Jonathan BerantICLR2021
    When answering complex questions, people can seamlessly combine information from visual, textual and tabular sources. While interest in models that reason over multiple pieces of evidence has surged in recent years, there has been relatively little work on question answering models that reason across multiple modalities. In this paper, we present MULTIMODALQA (MMQA): a challenging question answering dataset that requires joint reasoning over text, tables and images. We create MMQA using a new framework for generating complex multi-modal questions at scale, harvesting tables from Wikipedia, and attaching images and text paragraphs using entities that appear in each table. We then define a formal language that allows us to take questions that can be answered from a single modality, and combine them to generate cross-modal questions. Last, crowdsourcing workers take these automatically generated questions and rephrase them into more fluent language. We create 29,918 questions through this procedure, and empirically demonstrate the necessity of a multi-modal multi-hop approach to solve our task: our multi hop model, ImplicitDecomp, achieves an average F1 of 51.7 over cross-modal questions, substantially outperforming a strong baseline that achieves 38.2 F1, but still lags significantly behind human performance, which is at 90.1 F1.
  • Bootstrapping Relation Extractors using Syntactic Search by Examples

    Matan Eyal, Asaf Amrami, Hillel Taub-Tabib, Yoav GoldbergEACL2021
    The advent of neural-networks in NLP brought with it substantial improvements in supervised relation extraction. However, obtaining a sufficient quantity of training data remains a key challenge. In this work we propose a process for bootstrapping training datasets which can be performed quickly by non-NLP-experts. We take advantage of search engines over syntactic-graphs (Such as Shlain et al. (2020)) which expose a friendly by-example syntax. We use these to obtain positive examples by searching for sentences that are syntactically similar to user input examples. We apply this technique to relations from TACRED and DocRED and show that the resulting models are competitive with models trained on manually annotated data and on data obtained from distant supervision. The models also outperform models trained using NLG data augmentation techniques. Extending the search-based approach with the NLG method further improves the results.
  • First Align, then Predict: Understanding the Cross-Lingual Ability of Multilingual BERT

    Benjamin Muller, Yanai Elazar, Benoît Sagot, Djamé SeddahEACL2021
    Multilingual pretrained language models have demonstrated remarkable zero-shot crosslingual transfer capabilities. Such transfer emerges by fine-tuning on a task of interest in one language and evaluating on a distinct language, not seen during the fine-tuning. Despite promising results, we still lack a proper understanding of the source of this transfer. Using a novel layer ablation technique and analyses of the model’s internal representations, we show that multilingual BERT, a popular multilingual language model, can be viewed as the stacking of two sub-networks: a multilingual encoder followed by a taskspecific language-agnostic predictor. While the encoder is crucial for cross-lingual transfer and remains mostly unchanged during finetuning, the task predictor has little importance on the transfer and can be reinitialized during fine-tuning. We present extensive experiments with three distinct tasks, seventeen typologically diverse languages and multiple domains to support our hypothesis.
  • BERTese: Learning to Speak to BERT

    Adi Haviv, Jonathan Berant, A. GlobersonEACL2021
    Large pre-trained language models have been shown to encode large amounts of world and commonsense knowledge in their parameters, leading to substantial interest in methods for extracting that knowledge. In past work, knowledge was extracted by taking manuallyauthored queries and gathering paraphrases for them using a separate pipeline. In this work, we propose a method for automatically rewriting queries into “BERTese”, a paraphrase query that is directly optimized towards better knowledge extraction. To encourage meaningful rewrites, we add auxiliary loss functions that encourage the query to correspond to actual language tokens. We empirically show our approach outperforms competing baselines, obviating the need for complex pipelines. Moreover, BERTese provides some insight into the type of language that helps language models perform knowledge extraction.
  • Evaluating the Evaluation of Diversity in Natural Language Generation

    Guy Tevet, Jonathan BerantEACL2021
    Despite growing interest in natural language generation (NLG) models that produce diverse outputs, there is currently no principled method for evaluating the diversity of an NLG system. In this work, we propose a framework for evaluating diversity metrics. The framework measures the correlation between a proposed diversity metric and a diversity parameter, a single parameter that controls some aspect of diversity in generated text. For example, a diversity parameter might be a binary variable used to instruct crowdsourcing workers to generate text with either low or high content diversity. We demonstrate the utility of our framework by: (a) establishing best practices for eliciting diversity judgments from humans, (b) showing that humans substantially outperform automatic metrics in estimating content diversity, and (c) demonstrating that existing methods for controlling diversity by tuning a "decoding parameter" mostly affect form but not meaning. Our framework can advance the understanding of different diversity metrics, an essential step on the road towards better NLG systems.
  • Value-aware Approximate Attention

    Ankit Gupta, Jonathan BerantarXiv2021
    Following the success of dot-product attention in Transformers, numerous approximations have been recently proposed to address its quadratic complexity with respect to the input length. However, all approximations thus far have ignored the contribution of the $\textit{value vectors}$ to the quality of approximation. In this work, we argue that research efforts should be directed towards approximating the true output of the attention sub-layer, which includes the value vectors. We propose a value-aware objective, and show theoretically and empirically that an optimal approximation of a value-aware objective substantially outperforms an optimal approximation that ignores values, in the context of language modeling. Moreover, we show that the choice of kernel function for computing attention similarity can substantially affect the quality of sparse approximations, where kernel functions that are less skewed are more affected by the value vectors.
  • Formalizing Trust in Artificial Intelligence: Prerequisites, Causes and Goals of Human Trust in AI

    Alon Jacovi, Ana Marasović, Tim Miller, Yoav GoldbergFAccT2021
    Trust is a central component of the interaction between people and AI, in that 'incorrect' levels of trust may cause misuse, abuse or disuse of the technology. But what, precisely, is the nature of trust in AI? What are the prerequisites and goals of the cognitive mechanism of trust, and how can we cause these prerequisites and goals, or assess whether they are being satisfied in a given interaction? This work aims to answer these questions. We discuss a model of trust inspired by, but not identical to, sociology's interpersonal trust (i.e., trust between people). This model rests on two key properties of the vulnerability of the user and the ability to anticipate the impact of the AI model's decisions. We incorporate a formalization of 'contractual trust', such that trust between a user and an AI is trust that some implicit or explicit contract will hold, and a formalization of 'trustworthiness' (which detaches from the notion of trustworthiness in sociology), and with it concepts of 'warranted' and 'unwarranted' trust. We then present the possible causes of warranted trust as intrinsic reasoning and extrinsic behavior, and discuss how to design trustworthy AI, how to evaluate whether trust has manifested, and whether it is warranted. Finally, we elucidate the connection between trust and XAI using our formalization.
  • Measuring and Improving Consistency in Pretrained Language Models

    Yanai Elazar, Nora Kassner, Shauli Ravfogel, Abhilasha Ravichander, Eduard Hovy, Hinrich Schütze, Yoav GoldbergarXiv2021
    Consistency of a model — that is, the invariance of its behavior under meaning-preserving alternations in its input — is a highly desirable property in natural language processing. In this paper we study the question: Are Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) consistent with respect to factual knowledge? To this end, we create PARAREL , a high-quality resource of cloze-style query English paraphrases. It contains a total of 328 paraphrases for thirty-eight relations. Using PARAREL , we show that the consistency of all PLMs we experiment with is poor – though with high variance between relations. Our analysis of the representational spaces of PLMs suggests that they have a poor structure and are currently not suitable for representing knowledge in a robust way. Finally, we propose a method for improving model consistency and experimentally demonstrate its effectiveness
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