Papers

Learn more about AI2's Lasting Impact Award
All Projects
2020
Viewing 1-10 of 55 papers
  • It's not Greek to mBERT: Inducing Word-Level Translations from Multilingual BERT

    Hila Gonen, Shauli Ravfogel, Yanai Elazar, Yoav GoldbergEMNLP • BlackboxNLP Workshop 2020
    Recent works have demonstrated that multilingual BERT (mBERT) learns rich cross-lingual representations, that allow for transfer across languages. We study the word-level translation information embedded in mBERT and present two simple methods that expose remarkable translation capabilities with no fine-tuning. The results suggest that most of this information is encoded in a non-linear way, while some of it can also be recovered with purely linear tools. As part of our analysis, we test the hypothesis that mBERT learns representations which contain both a language-encoding component and an abstract, cross-lingual component, and explicitly identify an empirical language-identity subspace within mBERT representations.
  • Unsupervised Distillation of Syntactic Information from Contextualized Word Representations

    Shauli Ravfogel, Yanai Elazar, Jacob Goldberger, Yoav GoldbergEMNLP • BlackboxNLP Workshop2020
    Contextualized word representations, such as ELMo and BERT, were shown to perform well on various semantic and syntactic task. In this work, we tackle the task of unsupervised disentanglement between semantics and structure in neural language representations: we aim to learn a transformation of the contextualized vectors, that discards the lexical semantics, but keeps the structural information. To this end, we automatically generate groups of sentences which are structurally similar but semantically different, and use metric-learning approach to learn a transformation that emphasizes the structural component that is encoded in the vectors. We demonstrate that our transformation clusters vectors in space by structural properties, rather than by lexical semantics. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our distilled representations by showing that they outperform the original contextualized representations in a few-shot parsing setting.
  • Neural Natural Language Inference Models Partially Embed Theories of Lexical Entailment and Negation

    Atticus Geiger, Kyle Richardson, Christopher PottsEMNLP • BlackboxNLP Workshop 2020
    We address whether neural models for Natural Language Inference (NLI) can learn the compositional interactions between lexical entailment and negation, using four methods: the behavioral evaluation methods of (1) challenge test sets and (2) systematic generalization tasks, and the structural evaluation methods of (3) probes and (4) interventions. To facilitate this holistic evaluation, we present Monotonicity NLI (MoNLI), a new naturalistic dataset focused on lexical entailment and negation. In our behavioral evaluations, we find that models trained on general-purpose NLI datasets fail systematically on MoNLI examples containing negation, but that MoNLI fine-tuning addresses this failure. In our structural evaluations, we look for evidence that our top-performing BERT-based model has learned to implement the monotonicity algorithm behind MoNLI. Probes yield evidence consistent with this conclusion, and our intervention experiments bolster this, showing that the causal dynamics of the model mirror the causal dynamics of this algorithm on subsets of MoNLI. This suggests that the BERT model at least partially embeds a theory of lexical entailment and negation at an algorithmic level.
  • Document-Level Definition Detection in Scholarly Documents: Existing Models, Error Analyses, and Future Directions

    Dongyeop Kang, Andrew Head, Risham Sidhu, Kyle Lo, Daniel S. Weld, Marti A. HearstEMNLP • SDP workshop2020
    The task of definition detection is important for scholarly papers, because papers often make use of technical terminology that may be unfamiliar to readers. Despite prior work on definition detection, current approaches are far from being accurate enough to use in real-world applications. In this paper, we first perform in-depth error analysis of the current best performing definition detection system and discover major causes of errors. Based on this analysis, we develop a new definition detection system, HEDDEx, that utilizes syntactic features, transformer encoders, and heuristic filters, and evaluate it on a standard sentence-level benchmark. Because current benchmarks evaluate randomly sampled sentences, we propose an alternative evaluation that assesses every sentence within a document. This allows for evaluating recall in addition to precision. HEDDEx outperforms the leading system on both the sentence-level and the document-level tasks, by 12.7 F1 points and 14.4 F1 points, respectively. We note that performance on the high-recall document-level task is much lower than in the standard evaluation approach, due to the necessity of incorporation of document structure as features. We discuss remaining challenges in document-level definition detection, ideas for improvements, and potential issues for the development of reading aid applications.
  • PySBD: Pragmatic Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    Nipun Sadvilkar, M. NeumannEMNLP • NLP-OSS Workshop2020
    In this paper, we present a rule-based sentence boundary disambiguation Python package that works out-of-the-box for 22 languages. We aim to provide a realistic segmenter which can provide logical sentences even when the format and domain of the input text is unknown. In our work, we adapt the Golden Rules Set (a language-specific set of sentence boundary exemplars) originally implemented as a ruby gem - pragmatic_segmenter - which we ported to Python with additional improvements and functionality. PySBD passes 97.92% of the Golden Rule Set exemplars for English, an improvement of 25% over the next best open-source Python tool.
  • The Extraordinary Failure of Complement Coercion Crowdsourcing

    Yanai Elazar, Victoria Basmov, Shauli Ravfogel, Yoav Goldberg, Reut TsarfatyEMNLP • Insights from Negative Results in NLP Workshop 2020
    Crowdsourcing has eased and scaled up the collection of linguistic annotation in recent years. In this work, we follow known methodologies of collecting labeled data for the complement coercion phenomenon. These are constructions with an implied action -- e.g., "I started a new book I bought last week", where the implied action is reading. We aim to collect annotated data for this phenomenon by reducing it to either of two known tasks: Explicit Completion and Natural Language Inference. However, in both cases, crowdsourcing resulted in low agreement scores, even though we followed the same methodologies as in previous work. Why does the same process fail to yield high agreement scores? We specify our modeling schemes, highlight the differences with previous work and provide some insights about the task and possible explanations for the failure. We conclude that specific phenomena require tailored solutions, not only in specialized algorithms, but also in data collection methods.
  • A Dataset for Tracking Entities in Open Domain Procedural Text

    Niket Tandon, Keisuke Sakaguchi, Bhavana Dalvi Mishra, Dheeraj Rajagopal, Peter Clark, Michal Guerquin, Kyle Richardson, Eduard HovyEMNLP2020
    We present the first dataset for tracking state changes in procedural text from arbitrary domains by using an unrestricted (open) vocabulary. For example, in a text describing fog removal using potatoes, a car window may transition between being foggy, sticky, opaque, and clear. Previous formulations of this task provide the text and entities involved, and ask how those entities change for just a small, pre-defined set of attributes (e.g., location), limiting their fidelity. Our solution is a new task formulation where given just a procedural text as input, the task is to generate a set of state change tuples (entity, attribute, before-state, after-state) for each step, where the entity, attribute, and state values must be predicted from an open vocabulary. Using crowdsourcing, we create OPENPI1, a high-quality (91.5% coverage as judged by humans and completely vetted), and largescale dataset comprising 29,928 state changes over 4,050 sentences from 810 procedural realworld paragraphs from WikiHow.com. A current state-of-the-art generation model on this task achieves 16.1% F1 based on BLEU metric, leaving enough room for novel model architectures.
  • A Novel Challenge Set for Hebrew Morphological Disambiguation and Diacritics Restoration

    Avi Shmidman, Joshua Guedalia, Shaltiel Shmidman, Moshe Koppel, Reut TsarfatyFindings of EMNLP2020
    One of the primary tasks of morphological parsers is the disambiguation of homographs. Particularly difficult are cases of unbalanced ambiguity, where one of the possible analyses is far more frequent than the others. In such cases, there may not exist sufficient examples of the minority analyses in order to properly evaluate performance, nor to train effective classifiers. In this paper we address the issue of unbalanced morphological ambiguities in Hebrew. We offer a challenge set for Hebrew homographs -- the first of its kind -- containing substantial attestation of each analysis of 21 Hebrew homographs. We show that the current SOTA of Hebrew disambiguation performs poorly on cases of unbalanced ambiguity. Leveraging our new dataset, we achieve a new state-of-the-art for all 21 words, improving the overall average F1 score from 0.67 to 0.95. Our resulting annotated datasets are made publicly available for further research.
  • Does my multimodal model learn cross-modal interactions? It’s harder to tell than you might think!

    Jack Hessel, Lillian LeeEMNLP2020
    Modeling expressive cross-modal interactions seems crucial in multimodal tasks, such as visual question answering. However, sometimes high-performing black-box algorithms turn out to be mostly exploiting unimodal signals in the data. We propose a new diagnostic tool, empirical multimodally-additive function projection (EMAP), for isolating whether or not cross-modal interactions improve performance for a given model on a given task. This function projection modifies model predictions so that cross-modal interactions are eliminated, isolating the additive, unimodal structure. For seven image+text classification tasks (on each of which we set new state-of-the-art benchmarks), we find that, in many cases, removing cross-modal interactions results in little to no performance degradation. Surprisingly, this holds even when expressive models, with capacity to consider interactions, otherwise outperform less expressive models; thus, performance improvements, even when present, often cannot be attributed to consideration of cross-modal feature interactions. We hence recommend that researchers in multimodal machine learning report the performance not only of unimodal baselines, but also the EMAP of their best-performing model.
  • Do Language Embeddings Capture Scales?

    Xikun Zhang, Deepak Ramachandran, Ian Tenney, Yanai Elazar, Dan RothFindings of EMNLP • BlackboxNLP Workshop 2020
    Pretrained Language Models (LMs) have been shown to possess significant linguistic, common sense, and factual knowledge. One form of knowledge that has not been studied yet in this context is information about the scalar magnitudes of objects. We show that pretrained language models capture a significant amount of this information but are short of the capability required for general common-sense reasoning. We identify contextual information in pre-training and numeracy as two key factors affecting their performance and show that a simple method of canonicalizing numbers can have a significant effect on the results.
All Projects
2020